LimenitisAndrew V. Z. Brower
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The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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A holarctic genus which includes four North American species and a number of Eurasian species, the taxonomy of which may be somewhat oversplit given the high degree of hybridization and intraspecific variation exhibited among the North American representatives.
The above phylogenetic hypothesis is based on the combined mtDNA + Ef-1 alpha sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of Mullen (2006). The two genes in Mullen's data support alternate positions for L. populi (mtDNA places it at the base of the North American clade), suggesting that the reciprocal monophyly of Old and New World groups implied here is not stable.
Basilarchia is the name used by some authors for the North American species. These represent a distinct clade relative to the Palearctic Limenitis (Mullen 2006), but may render the Old World remainder paraphyletic.
Mullen SP. 2006. Wing pattern evolution and the origins of mimicry among North American admiral butterflies (Nymphalidae: Limenitis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 747-758.
Prudic, K. L. and J. C. Oliver. 2008. Once a Batesian mimic, not always a Batesian mimic: mimic reverts back to ancestral phenotype when the model is absent. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 275:1125-1132.
Tuzov VK, Bogdanov PV, Devyatkin AL, Kaabak LV, Korolev VA, Murzin VS, Samodurov GD, and Tarasov EA. 1997. Guide to the butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Pensoft, Sofia.
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Page: Tree of Life Limenitis Authored by . Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 07 November 2006
- Content changed 09 June 2009
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2009. Limenitis http://tolweb.org/Limenitis/70371/2009.06.09 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 09 June 2009 (under construction).