LimenitidinaeNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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Traditional "Limenitidinae" of authors (e. g., Harvery 1991) was a paraphyletic group composed of multiple clades: Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, Coloburini, and Limenitidini. The latter tribe, which is the sister group of Heliconiinae, is here considered to be the "true" Limenitidinae. The rest are more closeley-related to Apaturinae and Nymphalinae (or part of Nymphalinae, in the case of Coloburini).
Brower AVZ. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 1201-1211.
Harvey DJ. 1991. Higher classification of the Nymphalidae. In: Nijhout HF, ed. The Development and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 255-273.
Wahlberg N, Braby MF, Brower AVZ, de Jong R, Lee M-M, Nylin S, Pierce NE, Sperling FAH, Vila R, Warren AD, and Zakharov E. 2005. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272: 1577-1586.
Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, and Nylin S. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 28: 473-484.
About This Page
University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2009 Niklas Wahlberg and
Page: Tree of Life Limenitidinae Authored by . Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 15 January 2007
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2007. Limenitidinae http://tolweb.org/Limenitidinae/12196/2007.01.15 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 15 January 2007 (under construction).