AcraeiniNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
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Acraeini is a diverse group of unpalatable tropical butterflies. The center of diversity is in Africa, where there are hundreds of species involved in mimicry complexes that make their taxonomy a great challenge. It is not clear based upon the most recent data (Silva-Brandão et al. 2008) that any of the genera as currently circumscribed are monophyletic. The neotropical genera Abananote and Altinote are embedded within Actinote in the current scheme.
Silva-Brandão, K. L., N. Wahlberg, R. B. Francini, A. M. L. Azeredo-Espin, K. S. Brown Jr., M. Paluch, D. C. Lees and A. V. L. Freitas. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(2):515-531.
Information on the Internet
- Le site des Acraea de Dominique Bernaud. This website, compiled by Dominique Bernaud, contains an enormous amount of taxonomic, biogeographical and life-history information, as well as original descriptions and photos of African Acraeini.
About This Page
University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2006 Niklas Wahlberg and
Page: Tree of Life Acraeini Authored by . Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 19 March 2008
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2008. Acraeini http://tolweb.org/Acraeini/70203/2008.03.19 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 19 March 2008 (under construction).